ხიდი “საკვირველი” და “ჯუარი პატიოსანი” – რით გააოცა თბილისმა ყაზანელი სოვდაგარი

თბილისის უძველესი ხიდი მდინარე მტკვარზე – მეტეხის ხიდი, აგებული იყო მეტეხის კლდის ვიწროებში, იქ სადაც მდინარის კალაპოტი ყველაზე მეტად შევიწროებული იყო და სადაც თბილისის აკვანი დაირწა. ხიდი, ორივე მხრიდან ჩამოსული საციხო ნაგებობების მუდმივი ზედამხედველობის ქვეშ იყო მოქცეული. ფორტიფიკაციული ნაგებობების სისტემა მდინარის კალაპოტზე და მის გასწვრივ გამავალი გზის კონტროლის საშუალებას იძლეოდა. ხიდი არსებობდა იმ ადგილზე ციხესიმაგრეების დაარსებიდანვე. ასეთ დასკვნამდე მივყავართ საციხო ნაგებობების კომპოზიციას.

ივანე ჯავახიშვილი ფიქრობდა, რომ ამ ადგილას ძველად ერთმანეთის მახლოვლად 2 ხიდი უნდა ყოფილიყო. ამის საბაბი მისცა იოანე საბანისძის “აბო თბილელის მარტვილობაში” ნახსენებმა “ხიდთა ქალაქისთა” (უნდა აღინიშნოს, რომ ორი ხიდი მე-19 საუკუნეშიც იყო აგებული). უძველესი ხიდის ბურჯზე ჯვარი იყო აღმართული. “…ზედა აღმართული იყო პატიოსანი ჯუარი ხიდისა” – ვკითხულობთ “აბო თბილელის მარტვილობაში”.

შესაძლოა ხიდს გარკვეული რელიგიური დანიშნულებაც ჰქონდა. ალბათ, შემთხვევითი არ არის, რომ ირანის შაჰმა,ისმაილმა თბილისის დალაშქვრისას, მაინცადამაინც ამ ადგილზე “პატიოსანი ჯვრის” მაგიერ მეჩეთი ააშენა.

ამ აქტს მუსლიმანი დამპყრობისთვის სიმბოლური მნიშვნელობა უნდა ჰქონოდა. საგულისხმოა, რომ სწორედ ამ ხიდზე ცდილობდნენ მტრები თბილისელების გამაჰმადიანებას. ურჩევს მდინარეში ყრიდნენ. ასე იყო 1226 წელს ხვარაზმელთა ურდოების შემოსევისას, იგივე განმეორდა 1522 წელს სპარსელთა შემოჭრისას. ძველ წერილობით წყაროებში მეტეხის ვიწროებში აგებული ხიდი მოხსენიებულია, როგორც ერთადერთი ქალაქში. ამასთანავე ავტორები აღნიშნავენ ხიდის სიდიდესა და სიმტკიცეს. ყაზანელი სოვდაგარი ვასილ გაგარა, რომელიც ღვთისათვის მიცემული აღთქმის შესასრულებლად იერუსალიმში გაემგზავრა და გზად თბილისში გაიარა, თბილისის ხიდს “საკვირველს” უწოდებს. 

​სხვადასხვა ხანის აღწერილობის მიხედვით ხის ხიდი მეტეხის ვიწროებში ერთმალიანი იყო. იგი არაერთხელ დანგრეულა და აღდგენილა. ხიდს ზოგჯერ თბილისელებიც შლიდნენ, რათა მტერი არ გადმოსულიყო მეორე ნაპირზე.

წყარო: ჯგუფი “ჩემი თბილი ქალაქი”
გაგრძელება იქნება

მსგავსი თემები

131 Thoughts to “ხიდი “საკვირველი” და “ჯუარი პატიოსანი” – რით გააოცა თბილისმა ყაზანელი სოვდაგარი”

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